When you work out the contract with each client (and yes, you should have a contract in place!), you'll list out the terms of how often you plan to invoice and when you should be paid. For instance, you can agree to bill on the first of each month, or biweekly so you get paid every other Friday. Keep in mind whether your industry is one where you invoice upfront before any work has been completed. In this case you'll be detailing the progress of the project as opposed to doing a monthly invoice.
Accurate billing is extremely important when it comes to independent contractors and small business owners. You can't afford to lose a customer over something that should be done right the first time. Business owners who provide detailed, prompt invoices straight to the customer's inbox come out way ahead in the credibility stakes.