Using invoicing systems to make it simple - While you can make up your own invoice or use a free template, it's often easier to use an invoicing system that offers more in depth features. Some invoice systems, like Harvest, offer the option to create estimates for big projects, keep track of multiple clients and send reminder emails when payments are late. Another option is Freshbooks, which offers similar features but includes profit and loss sheets, as well as trackers to help you manage your time.
Be transparent – Your client wants to know where their money is going, so don't hide or be too general with line items on your invoices, and be prepared to show receipts. Otherwise, they'll wonder if you're padding the bill. Be specific. For example, instead of listing "materials" as a single expense, list each one on its own line, such as: paint, nails, plywood, etc.